Get Ready: New Horizons Is Approaching Its Next Target | SciShow News

New Horizons is on its way to Ultima Thule, the most distant object a spacecraft has ever visited. And scientists have created the sugar component of DNA under extraterrestrial conditions.

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Sources:
http://www.planetary.org/blogs/jason-davis/2018/nh-ut-100days.html
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/Mission/Where-is-New-Horizons.php
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/Mission/The-Path-to-Ultima-Thule.php
https://appel.nasa.gov/2018/09/26/new-horizons-homes-in-on-ultima-thule/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467­018­07693­x
http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/tops/meteorite02.html
https://science.nasa.gov/ems/10_ultravioletwaves
https://ares.jsc.nasa.gov/meteorite-falls/what-are-meteorites/
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Images:
https://images.nasa.gov/details-PIA09113.html
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-announces-media-activities-for-new-horizons-new-year-s-kuiper-belt-flyby
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2014_MU69_size_comparison_01.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thule_carta_marina_Olaus_Magnus.jpg
https://www.nasa.gov/feature/ultima-in-view-nasa-s-new-horizons-makes-first-detection-of-kuiper-belt-flyby-target
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2014_MU69_orbit.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PIA21868-2014MU69-SingleObject-ArtConcept-20170804.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PIA21867-2014MU69-BinaryObject-ArtConcept-20170804.jpg
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/resources/255/artist-concept-flying-by-mu69/?category=solar-system/kuiper-belt_2014-mu69
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/meteorite-cross-section-gm172260885-3896432
https://www.eso.org/public/images/eso1740a/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:D-dexoyribose_chain.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_chemical_structure.svg
https://www.eso.org/public/images/eso1109a/
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/comet-gm153984222-21672453

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Bdelloids: The Most Hardcore Animals in the World?

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Bdelloid rotifers have a superpower. If their DNA is shredded to pieces, whether from a lack of water or a blast of radiation, they can put it back together.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498783/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4632278/
https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2004830
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jeb.12326
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/13/5139
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/13/5145.long
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608044
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166508
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22308443
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2278216/
——
Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bdelloidea1_w.jpg
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/medical-illustration-gm490477430-75220973
https://youtu.be/Q-K7ohJzpHc
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/dna-gm484011593-38317694
https://youtu.be/rWfD4JYNmEI
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/an-image-of-a-growing-rotifers-in-a-horizontal-view-gm116828387-6009634
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rotifera_feeding_and_moving.ogv
https://youtu.be/Q-K7ohJzpHc
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SEM_image_of_Milnesium_tardigradum_in_active_state_-_journal.pone.0045682.g001-2.png
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/micro-organism-rotifer-gm612854684-105689037
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bdelloid_Rotifier_-_Danelle_Vivier.jpg
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/nuclear-sign-icon-on-black-and-white-vector-backgrounds-gm695988328-128756421

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The radical possibilities of man-made DNA | Floyd E. Romesberg

Every cell that’s ever lived has been the result of the four-letter genetic alphabet: A, T, C and G — the basic units of DNA. But now that’s changed. In a visionary talk, synthetic biologist Floyd E. Romesberg introduces us to the first living organisms created with six-letter DNA — the four natural letters plus two new man-made ones, X and Y — and explores how this breakthrough could challenge our basic understanding of nature’s design.

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Why Can’t We Clone Endangered Species to Save Them?

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We know how to clone animals, so why aren’t we saving endangered species by cloning their populations?

Hosted by: Hank Green

SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It’s called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at https://www.scishowtangents.org
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Sources:

https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/directory
http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/environment/sdut-rhino-cloning-stem-cells-san-diego-zoo-safari-park-2014dec20-story.html
http://dolly.roslin.ed.ac.uk/facts/the-life-of-dolly/index.html
https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/about/dolly/facts/cloning
https://www.britannica.com/list/cc-the-first-cloned-cat
http://time.com/3822573/snuppy/
https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)30057-6
http://www.cnn.com/2001/NATURE/01/12/cloned.gaur/index.html
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2003/04/banteng-cloned
https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/aug/05/iran-scientists-clone-endangered-mouflon-domestic-sheep
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cloning-endangered-animals/
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-cloning-your-dog-so-wrong-180968550/
https://www.theverge.com/2018/4/6/17175936/northern-white-rhino-de-extinction-stem-cells-sudan
https://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/safetyhealth/animalcloning/ucm055513.htm
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14733744
https://www.amnh.org/explore/ology/earth/ask-a-scientist-about-our-environment/should-we-clone-endangered-animals
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/george-church-de-extinction-is-a-good-idea/
https://www.techtimes.com/articles/228655/20180526/scientists-to-clone-entire-northern-white-rhino-population-from-frozen-cells.htm
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/08/150818-plague-yosemite-campground-cases-science/150820-giant-pandas-national-zoo-animals-science/
https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/estrus-cycles-in-cats
https://institute.sandiegozoo.org/science-blog/rhinos-and-reproduction
https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2018/05/how-to-impregnate-a-rhino/561455/
https://phys.org/news/2006-10-tube-rhinos.html
http://wwf.panda.org/knowledge_hub/endangered_species/rhinoceros/african_rhinos/white_rhinoceros/
https://www.nature.com/news/stem-cell-plan-aims-to-bring-rhino-back-from-brink-of-extinction-1.19849
https://qz.com/913682/a-harvard-university-scientistss-attempt-to-resurrect-a-wooly-mammoth-raises-ethical-questions/
http://bio1220.biology.gatech.edu/?page_id=53
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/mam.12138

Images:

http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-african-animals/599878306
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dolly_face_closeup.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Indian_Gaur_from_anaimalai_hills_JEG5290.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pyrenean_Ibex.png
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-animal-cloning/985639976
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-great-panda-bear-sitting-at-the-rainforest/865015440
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-homeless-cat-on-the-street/816253988
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_horn_Rhino_in_Kaziranga_national_park.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-sheeps-in-green-rural-meadow-south-island-new/486007934
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-eyes-of-the-tiger/544355522
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-ranger-with-firearm-face-to-face-rhino/544808324
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bumi_Hills_Anti-Poaching_Unit_Protecting_Elephants_in_Zimbabwe.jpg
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-rhino-mother-african-lowveld-savanna-calf/838552492

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Everything You Need to Know about Space – Mental Floss Scatterbrained

SPACE! This week, we learn about failed attempts to explore planets like Venus and Mars. Then we talk about a fascinating twin study of American astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly. There’s a fact list of weird things that have been brought to space. We’re talking Yankee memorabilia and lots of Legos. And we wrap up looking ahead to the future of space travel: will astronauts be able to bake bread on board the ISS?

Subscribe for new episodes of Scatterbrained every other Wednesday!

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People can Inherit Mitochondrial DNA from Both Parents | SciShow News

Earlier this week, a team of researchers announced that they’d made a discovery about how we inherit mitochondrial DNA from our parents that could change what we know about not only disease inheritance, but human history as a whole.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Sources:
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1810946115
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/gene
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/mitochondrial-dna#definition
http://hihg.med.miami.edu/code/http/modules/education/Design/Print.asp?CourseNum=2&LessonNum=4
https://www.zmescience.com/other/science-abc/about-mitochondrial-dna-42423/
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-researchers-trace/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/biochemistry-genetics-and-molecular-biology/nuclear-dna
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/dads-mitochondrial-dna/
http://www.mitoaction.org/guide/the-diagnosis-process
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534702000095
https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/homo2/mod_homo_4.htm

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The Strange Case of the Missing Sunscreen Gene

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If you’ve ever spent too much time in the sun and forgotten to put on sunscreen, you know how painful a sunburn can be. But for some animals, forgetting the sunscreen wouldn’t be a problem because they can just produce their own!

Hosted by: Stefan Chin

SciShow has a spinoff podcast! It’s called SciShow Tangents. Check it out at https://www.scishowtangents.org
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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Sources:
https://elifesciences.org/articles/05919
https://elifesciences.org/articles/07961
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7200360
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eda6/7490f385e8ecd3e4f4b491288f844f4a3d50.pdf [PDF]
https://aem.asm.org/content/80/16/5028
https://futurism.com/parallel-universe-bodies-generated-sunscreen
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712437/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248400904032
https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro2649
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2671032/

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How Researchers Made Mice Pups from Two Moms and Two Dads | SciShow News

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This week in news: Scientist successfully breed mice using same-sex parents and some very clever genetic engineering.

Hosted by: Hank Green

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Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Lazarus G, Sam Lutfi, D.A. Noe, الخليفي سلطان, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Patrick D. Ashmore, charles george, Kevin Bealer, Chris Peters
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Sources:
Primary article
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1934590918304417?via%3Dihub
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181011143115.htm

2 Routes for making human ESCs (2016)
https://www.nature.com/articles/cr201659

Genomic Imprinting
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/inheritance/updimprinting
http://mcb.berkeley.edu/courses/mcb142/lecture%20topics/Amacher/LECTURE_13_Imprinting_F08.pdf

Human haploid stem cells
https://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13287-017-0657-4
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170628131826.htm

Preventing haploid ESCs from becoming diploids (2018)
http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2018/02/15/jbc.RA118.002029.full.pdf

Bimaternal mice longevity (2009)
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/12/091201192105.htm

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How to create a world where no one dies waiting for a transplant | Luhan Yang

For nearly half a century, scientists have been trying to create a process for transplanting animal organs into humans, a theoretical dream that could help the hundreds of thousands of people in need of a lifesaving transplant. But the risks, specifically of transmitting the PERV virus from pigs to humans, have always been too great, stalling research — until now. In a mind-blowing talk, geneticist Luhan Yang explains a breakthrough: using CRISPR, a technique for editing genes, she and her colleagues have created pigs that don’t carry the virus, opening up the possibility of safely growing human-transplantable organs in pigs. Learn more about this cutting-edge science and how it could help solve the organ shortage crisis.

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How data is helping us unravel the mysteries of the brain | Steve McCarroll

Geneticist Steve McCarroll wants to make an atlas of all the cells in the human body so that we can understand in precise detail how specific genes work, especially in the brain. In this fascinating talk, he shares his team’s progress — including their invention of “Drop-seq,” a technology that allows scientists to analyze individual cells at a scale that was never before possible — and describes how this research could lead to new ways of treating mental illnesses like schizophrenia.

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